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The importance of app rop riate Chinese English(得体的中国式英语的重要性)

时间:2013-8-5栏目:英语论文

  The importance of app rop riate Chinese English(得体的中国式英语的重要性)
  
  查砚波  云南省普洱市北部区普洱第二中学(665000)
  
  【Introduction】Owing to the globalization, the Allied victories in World War Ⅱ,and American leadership in science and technology, English has become so successful across the world that it is escaping the boundaries of what we think it should be. The statistics shows that: by the year of 2002, native speakers made up only 15 percent of 2 billion people who are estimated to be using or learning English. Already, more and more nonnative speakers use English in daily conversation. There are 2.5 billion people are learning English just in China, so that Chinese people may create their own words following their thinking mode with strong Chinese flavor. Obviously, Chinese English is a natural language phenomenon. English learners tend to use English to express Chinese special culture in their learning phase, so “Chinese English” become the hot topic in the linguistics, lexicology and translation research areas.
  
  【Key Words】Chinese English, language, culture
  
  1拟开展研究的价值和意义
  
  在经济全球化,信息短信息全球化的今天,国与国之间的联系和交流不断加强,特别是在政治、经济、文化上在不断的渗透与汲取中已经成为了一个整体,密不可分,其中一个明显的特征就是“中式英语”的出现, 中国式英语通常被认为是因中国的英语学习和使用者受到母语的干扰和影响,套用汉语规则和习惯,而在英语交际中出现的不合规范或不合乎英语文化习惯的畸形英语。它虽然是错误分析的直接对象和基础,但并不完全等同于错误、或仅仅把它看作是由错误所组成的语言体系。中国式英语是中国的英语学习者在英语习得过程中的一种中介语现象,主要表现在语音、语法和语用三个层面有区别于标准英语的特征。它是动态的、不断变化的,具有不稳定性、创造性和鲜明的时代特征。
  
  据“全球语言监督”的统计,自1994年以来,中式英语对国际英语词汇贡献为5%到20%,中文成为英语词汇的最大来源。20世纪英语新词中外语借词约占5%,可见中式英语发展态势迅猛。由于近年来中国政府汉语文化像世界推广的力度加大,孔子学院在世界各国纷纷建立,中式英语必然对英语发展产生更大的影响。中式英语的加入丰富了英语的表现力和感染力,给英语输入了新鲜的血液,所以对中式英语进行研究,不断成为语言学界的热点话题,受到人们越来越多的关注。
  
  本文从另一个角度出发,肯定了中式英语的存在,系统研究了中式英语存在的必然性,出现的原因,及客观的证明了中式英语存在的合理性及其现实价值和潜在价值。用一种兼容并蓄的态度对待中式英语的存在。
  
  2研究的步骤方法
  
  本文从另一个角度出发,肯定了中式英语的存在,并运用词汇学和翻译理论的基本观点,客观的证明了中式英语在文化传播与交流中的重要作用及存在的合理性和他的现实价值和潜在价值。作者从英语的国际化必然引起的英语的本土化的辩证关系,及基于英汉思维差异,文化之间的不同,举出大量的中式英语的词汇,来指出了中国式英语必将在英语中国化的进程中以及文化传播中起到重要作用。因此在教学、科研、出版等方面应更加重视中国式英语,更加科学地、辩证地对待中国式英语,从而达到趋利避害的目的。
  
  3论文拟定提纲
  
  3.1引言(Introduction);
  
  3.2中式英语出现的原因及必然性
  
  3.2.1中式英语存在的概况
  
  3.2.2中式英语出现的原因
  
  (1)中西方思维模式上的差异
  
  (2)中国传统文化对英语国家的影响
  
  (3)英语的国际化引起英语的本土化
  
  3.3得体的中式英语时文化输出的重要组成部分
  
  3.3.1中式英语作为文化载体其简洁,生动性为英语所接受
  
  3.3.2英语中汉语借词量的增多为中国文化的传出铺路
  
  3.3.3文化交流中得体的中式英语填补了词义空缺的现象
  
  3.3.4中式英语是译文中传播中国文化的重要组成部分
  
  ①宗教文化
  
  ②语言文化
  
  ③物质文化
  
  ④社会文化
  
  ⑤生态文化
  
  3.4如何正确看待中式英语的存在
  
  3. 4.1兼容并蓄的态度
  
  ①避免完全否认中式英语
  
  ②接受得体的中式英语
  
  3.4.2避免使用错误的中式英语
  
  3.5结论(Conclusion)
  
  1General Survey of the Existence of Chinese English
  
  Global Language Monitor have publicized the most popular ten words in 2008: Refugee, Tsunami, Pope, Chinglish, H5N, Recaille, Catrina, Wiki, SMS, Insurgent. We can see that “Chinese English” ranked four. Obviously, “Chinglish” is the combination of Chinese and English. How did Chinese English become such a Phenomenon? In fact, Chinese English was firstly known as the “pidgin” in Guang Dong, and it came from and then promoted the trade between countries. Now, there are almost 2.5 billion Chinese people are learning and using English, so Chinese English appeared during this process. For example,” long time no see (好久不见)”, and the word” drinktea (喝茶)” that is from Cantonese have already become the standard English phrases. And there are more and more Chinese English produced continuously, just like “coolie (苦力)”, “typhoon(台风)”, “kong fu (功夫)”, “Yin yang (阴阳)”, “kowtow (叩头)”, “Tofu(豆腐)”, “Lychee(荔枝)”, “Mahjong(麻将)”, “Fengshui(风水)”, “Taichi(太极)”, “Yamen(衙门)”, “Chow mein(炒面)”, “Taikongre(太空人)”… English vocabulary is accelerated at the high speed due to the emergence of these new words. The president of Global Language Monitor Paul?Payack said: “Chinese English is the aid to accelerate the English globalization, amazingly, owning to the influence of Chinese economic development, Chinese produced higher impulsion than the other English-speaking countries”。 As estimated, by the year of 1994, Chinese English had contributed 5 percent to 20 percent new words to the English World since it joined in the English vocabulary, and this number is larger than any other countries. Native speakers can fully understand these new words or phrases and there is no need of interpretation.
  
  English is the most widely used language all over the world, according to David Crytistics statistics: there are 57 countries using English as the native language, 63 countries regarded English as second language, and as to the expending countries, like China, Japan, Russia, Brazil, there are one billion two million to one billon five million people are using English. Thus it is the fact that the English globalization and nativization are becoming an inevitable issue. As discussed above, Chinese English is came up with and then widely used by people day by day. It is a part of “World Englishes” and has its own characteristics, but how Chinese English originated? Next the author tries to analysis it by follows.
  
  2Origin of “Chinese English”
  
  2.1The Difference of Thinking Mode
  
  Living produces language, language is the mirror of culture. Though there has been much cultural integration and exchange between China and western countries, there are absolutely a lot of differences. Thus there will be ,of course various of differences on expression at the certain point. Chinese people pay attention to ethnic and politic in the reality while western countries people pay attention to cognition and they show their curiosity to nature, such as: “顺其自然( Let nature take its course in according with its natural tendency)”, “听天由命(be at the mercy of nature)”。
  
  Back to the history, Chinese characters were originated from hieroglyph, but English words were made up with 24 letters, every English word is made from combinations of these letters, that is to say Chinese people emphasize on intuitive thinking while western people emphasize on logical thinking.
  
  2.2The Influence of Chinese Traditional Culture
  
  Different cultures have different thinking way .Chinese students of English have their own thinking way peculiar to the Chinese culture, so more and more Chinese English is produced. Beside this reason, the Chinese traditional culture also palys an important role in the emergence of Chinese English. After the break of silk road, western people began to acquainted with Chinese silk, tea, Cofucious, Mencious, Taoist, acupuncture(针灸), taiji and they also showed great interest and mysterious in Chinese Kongfu, geomantic omen(风水学),so to a certain degree, they are willing to accept the Chinese English.
  
  2.3The Process of English Globalization
  
  With the deepening of inter-cultural dialogue and communication, English became the most popular language all over the world, when English is used in different regions of the world, it will definitely mediate integration of local elements into a global pattern. So English globalization will absolutely bring about the English localization, English-speaking countries also knew “one nation, two systems, paper tiger, Four Modernization, reform and opening up to the outside world, guanxi, Great Leap Forward, Gang of Four…” These words are all given the feature of different stages of Chinese development. As a result of the creation of all these words, foreigners can know Chinese culture, politic better. In fact, Chinese English plays an important role in communication.
  
  From what have discussed above, we know that the existence of Chinese English is impersonal and it is regarded as a English variety in the world of Englishes. Now let us discuss the role Chinese English plays in the exporting the Chinese culture.
  
  3Function of Chinese English
  
  According to the statistics, there are more than 2,000 languages in the world. Every language has its own grammatical rules, and the special culture connotation. Chinese is not an exception. Why Chinese English is being widely accepted by more and more people? The answer is that Chinese English plays an important role in culture exchange, and it helps spread Chinese culture. The author will analysis Chinese English’s function from following three aspects in detailed.
  
  3.1The Concise and Vivid Culture Carrier
  
  Different from English, Chinese is non-formed language, and has no derivational changes. English, however, when defining properties of words, there should be categories. For example, the noun and pronoun are usually said to the categories of number, gender, case; and the verb the categories of tense, aspect, voice. Chinese has no such complicated grammatical rule. As to this point, the famous writer Wang Li said:” The construction of the English just like a ring, though it has been become a whole ring, can also find the trace how it was formed; but construction of Chinese is flawlessly, we can know they were made up by every single part, but we can not find any trace to know how they are integrated.” So the English grammar is a kind of fixed rule, when you want to make a sentence, you should obey the rule strictly, it is lack of recreational ability; but in Chinese that is flexible. That is to say, making sentences in English require more formalistic rule, but in Chinese the sentences are used to express the speakers’ meaning and intention with no absolutely fixed rules. So the syntax feature of Chinese is parataxis while English is hypotaxis.
  
  As to Chinese English, it is the outcome of combination the Chinese and English, it should be reserved some future of Chinese characteristics. Now the author tries to give some examples to show this point of view:
  
  Laid-off workers(下岗工人),official profiteering(官倒),Two civilizations(两个文明), One China policy(一个中国的政策), triangle debts(三角债), construct clean politics(廉政建设), macro-economic control system(宏观调控体系), a collective-ownership employee(集体所有制员工), bourgeois liberalism(资产阶级自由化), special economic zone(经济特区),Opening-Up \Open-door policy(开放政策), reform and opening-up program(改革开放), nonstate industries(非国有工业), state manufacturers(国有生产者), floating population(人口流动), vegetable basket project(菜篮子政策), planned commodity economy(计划经济), fairly comfortable standard of living(小康水平), iron rice bowl(铁饭碗), enterprise contracted production system(企业承包经营责任制), family-contract responsibility system(家庭联产承包责任制), township enterprises(乡镇企业), knowledge economy(知识经济), charge(充电), spiritual pollution(精神污染), one country two system(一国两制), Four modernizations(四个现代化)。
  
  These Chinese English was created after the adoption the Open-door policy, at this stage of development, Chinese political party decided to build socialism with Chinese characteristics. The economy began to recover, but at the same, due to the immature policy, some problems also began to appear. The other countries in the world are increasingly concerned about Chinese politic policy, economic policy, diplomatic policy. As a result, it is inevitable to create some terminology reflecting the Chinese cultural and social background, foreign countries can learn Chinese culture more accurately and clearly through these words, the Chinese culture is carried forward by Chinese English from the east to the west easily.
  
  After all, the feature of Chinese English is decided by Chinese culture and thinking mode. It is very necessary in cross-culture communication at the initial stage of English globalization.
  
  Now the foreigners can not only say:” I have not seen you for a long time”,also, they can say:” Long time no see.” Just like they can say: ”one nation with two different social systems.” They also accept:”one nation, two systems.” As the saying goes:” Do as the Romans do.” In China, learners create a new appropriate way to express themselves, and the foreigners also like to accept these appropriate sayings without obey their own grammatical rules. As to the certain point, because of the concise expression, Chinese English is not ignored by English-speaking countries, instead, widely accepted by them. The concise diction, the symmetry grammar, the flexibility of structure , so people find easier to communicate with each other with Chinese English. Chinese English has infused new vigor into the English vocabulary. For example:” pipa(琵琶), erhu(二胡), wushu(武术), gongfu(功夫), taiji(太极), yangko(秧歌), weiqi(围棋), mahjong(麻将), qigong(气功), sampan(舢板)……” All these Chinese English reflects the various entertainment activities in Chinese people’s daily life, foreign countries will know the culture of Chinese in a thoroughly way, and the Chinese culture can be exported more easily. At this point the feature of parataxis palys a role in the reformation of modern English. At present, the function is at the beginning, just like the expression “write protect(写保护)”, which originated from English world, and can be easily find the trace of reformation. As to some authentic expression of English, like: “The more the better” is absolutely a kind of Chinese English expression. So Chinese English is important way to carry Chinese culture to foreign countries.
  
  3.2 The Symbol of Exporting Culture— Loanwords
  
  As a kind of widely used and widely imported language, English has imported a large number of words from Italy, Germany, Scandinavian, French and Greek (A Survey of English Lexicology)。 With the number of Chinese-speaking people raised, people can take the vocabulary coming from Chinese English for granted. Such as “jiaozi(饺子)”, “kongfu(功夫)”,”wushu(武术)”, this kind of importation can be divided into two kinds: active import and passive import. The former one is native speaker to express certain words or phrase in Chinese way; the latter refers to Chinese-speaking people to export the special words or phrase to the English-speaking countries. To a certain degree, the latter plays a more important role in cross-culture communication.
  
  Many scholars have studied on the loanwords borrowing from Chinese, just like Garland Cannon’s Chinese Borrowings in English and Wang Rongpei’s Sources of Chinese borrowings in English .These studies have contributed greatly to the academic issue of Chinese English words. Thanks to the researches done by the scholars, we can learn more about how important role does Chinese English loanword play in exporting the Chinese culture.
  
  History of Chinese English goes back to more than one thousand years ago, of course, the earliest direct contact between China and England was in the 1637, In those days, English merchants imported tea from China, prior to this they contact through intermediary country. According to the Oxford English Dictionary “silk” went into England in 888 AD. Language and culture can not be separated from each other. When “silk” went into England, we can see the influence generated in England by silk culture. From the “silk” we can get another 65 words after derivation, such as :”silky(丝一样的)”, ”silkily(柔软的)”, “silken(丝制的)”, “silkiness(柔软光洁)” …
  
  As we know, china is the World-Renowned product created by wise and hard-working Chinese people, so when letter “c” is not the capitalized form here, it becomes the national treasure-china, then a lot of new words related to “china” gradually become standard words in English vocabulary, such as “Nankin(白底青花瓷)”, “Canton ware(广东瓷器)”, “Chien ware(宋瓷)”, “Wutai(五彩釉)”, “Kaolin(高岭土)”, “Yishing(宜兴陶瓷)”。
  
  In the 17th century, because of contact through commercial trade between China and English, more and more Chinese English words were imported, such as: “tea(茶)”, “ginseng(人参)”, “bohea(武夷茶)”, “kumquat(金橘)”, “yamen(衙门)”, “taotai(道台)”, “kowtow(叩头)”, “Taoism(道教)”, “pailou(牌楼)”, “kilin(麒麟)”。
  
  “Tea” and “China” are the earliest words entering into English world, which indicate the influence of tea culture and the prosperous tea trade at that time. English people showed great interest in this kind of Chinese special drinking-“tea”, there are loanwords are related to “tea”, such as: “congou(功夫茶)”, “hyson(熙春茶)”, “oolong(乌龙茶)”, “pekoe(白毫茶)”, “souchong(小茶种)”… From words like “Boxer(义和团)”, “Ching(清)”, “Sun Yat-senism(三民主义)”, “Kuomintang(国民党)”,the foreigners can learn more about Chinese culture, which were the symbol of the times.
  
  In the 20th century, as a result of political instability and social unrest in China, words namely “San Fan(三反)”, “Great Leap Forward(大跃进)”, “Gang of Four(四人帮)”, “Spiritual Pollution(精神污染)” were used to describe the political environment at that time. Meanwhile, the People’s Daily(人民日报)”, “Maoism(毛泽东思想)”, “Four Modernization(四个现代化)”, , “reform and opening up to the outside world(改革开放)”, “one country, two system(一国两制)”, “guanxi(关系)”… have been widely used in description of Chinese politic policy, diplomatic policy at various foreign newspapers. What’s more, most of these words have been added to the dictionary.
  
  In the late 20th century, more and more Chinese English words appear in English vocabulary, because of the deepening of globalization, people in the world communicate with each other more than before, so it is inevitable that mutual influence and infiltration happens among different languanges. In 1997, there are another 13 new words recorded in Oxford English Dictionary Addition Series like:” lahu(拉祜族)”, a group of Chinese ethnic minority, and “Kiangsi(江西省)”, “Lungshan(龙山)”, “Lingchi(灵芝)”, some words are closely connected with Chinese ancient culture: “Ko(戈)”, “Liting(鬲鼎)”, “Lei(罍)”, “Leiwen(雷纹)”, “K’ai Shu(楷书)”, “Li Shu(隶书)”, and two words are from modern Chinese: “ganbei(干杯)”, “ganbu(干部)”。
  
  After analysis of the general development of Chinese English words borrowed by English, the readers can easily find that the language and culture can not be separated, language is the carrier of culture. For example, we can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people did not know how to write. The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas-legends handed down from one generation of story tellers to another. So the nation can be preserved all the time. And their culture can be known by other people even though there is no written record about their ancestors.With the continuously flow of Chinese English words, people from countries can know Chinese culture better and easier, just as they know that there are great tea culture and national treasure china, Kongfu and so on in China. China has 5,000 years of history, how to export the prosperous history to outside world? Let us assume that there are no words or phrases can be used to describe the definition of things related to China, it will be hard to spread Chinese culture far and wide. To put it simply, people will find it is not easy to communicate with each other when talking something about China. Thus language is closely connected with the history and culture of a country. In some certain degree, culture is confined in language domain and language is influenced by culture development. Just like mirror and reflection. Language can function as a mirror, reflecting cultural connotation.
  
  Today, the world become an indivisible whole, people all over the world eager to communicate with other, so the birth of Chinese English can not be avoided. There is no doubt that Chinese English plays an important role in exporting our Chinese culture to other counties. And as the time goes by, the function of the Chinese English will be more and more visible in the cross-culture communication.
  
  3.3The Medium of Culture Exchange
  
  Why do people create language? Because people needed a tool helping them communicate effectively with each other as they working and living in the community. According to the linguistics, there are seven major functions of language: Informative, Interpersonal Function, Performative, Emotive Function, Phatic Function, Recreational Function, Metalingual Function. For most people the informative function is predominantly the major role of language. Language is the instrument of thought and people often feel the need to express their own ideas aloud, for instance, when they are working on a math problem. To use language to record the facts is a prerequisite of social developments.,this is indeed a crucial function of language.
  
  It is also called ideational function in the framework of functional grammar. Halliday notes that Language serves for the expression of content which is of the speaker’s experience of the real world, including the inner world of his own consciousness ……In serving this function, language also gives structure to experience and helps to determine our way of looking at things, so that it requires some intellectual effort to see them in any other way than that which our language suggests to us.”(Linguistic A Course Book)
  
  With the trend of globalization, though the certain concept have been achieved in some way, there are still some difficulties when people belonging to different language family try to communicate with each other, if the Chinese traditional culture is express with the way of English rule. It is not easy to achieve the purpose as communicater expected. Just like the word “tea”, if people try to explain it in English, it is turn out to be in vain, may be people hard to understand what is “茶” really means, and why the “tea culture” so popular in Chinese traditional culture.
  
  It is a very common phenomenon, sometimes we hardly find any proper words to convey our idea when communicating with English, and the reason may be no such word existing in English language. Every Language possesses a dual character; it is both a mean of communication and a carrier of culture, and the vocabulary of each language is an integral part of the culture information, the vocabulary can reflect the concepts of value and culture. The meaning of each word always has the special feature of ethnic concept. Semantically, if one word belonging to one culture has no fully corresponding word belonging to another culture system, then this phenomenon is called semantic zero. Because there are differences in material, institutional and psychological culture between China and western counties, a lot of “semantic zero”(A new course book on Chinese-English Translation) can be find between the Chinese and English vocabulary system. It is hard to find some English words to reflect the Chinese traditional culture. For example, the core concept of Taoism is the “道”, if it is translated into “the way” in English, it is impossible to reflect the crucial meaning or doctrine of “Taoism”; another example, “阴,阳”, which are a philosophical concepts, not only highly summarize all the things in the world but also indicate the rule that how all the things take in their course. It is hard to find words which totally correspondence to these concepts, so sometimes communicating with English speaking people, we feel that it is difficult to find a proper word to show our point. Under these conditions, Chinese English plays an important role in the “Semantic Zero” circumstances rightly.
  
  Many English words have roots in China. At the beginning, a lot of English words come from transliteration of Chinese. Just like:”qigong(气功)”, ”kongfu(功夫)”, “taichi(太极)”, “fengshui(风水)”, “yinyang(阴阳)”, “kowtow(叩头)”, “Cheongsam(气泡)”, “wonton(馄饨)”, “tofu(豆腐)”, “chop suey(杂碎)”, “jiaozi(饺子)”, “litchi(荔枝)”, “oolong(乌龙茶)”… then these words are embodied in the standard English vocabulary, and widely accepted by western countries.
  
  And through the way of “literal translation” some Chinese English was also created, they are not only concision but also preserve the original meaning in Chinese. Just like “Book of Changes(易经)”, “feel the pulse(号脉)”, “Beijing Opera(京剧)”, “dragon boat(龙舟)”, “Spring Festival(春节)”, Spring roll(春卷)”, “eight-treasure pickles(八宝菜)”, “xiucai(秀才)”, “the Great Northern Wilderness(北大荒)”, “shadow Beef(灯影牛肉)”, “Hope Project(希望工程)”, “ideological remoulding(思想改造)”, “dazibao(大字报)”, “putonghua(普通话)”, “yuan(元)”, “jiao(角)”,”fen(分)”, “running dogs(走狗)”, “ work units(工作单位)”,…
  
  These Chinese English has greatly facilitated the communication with foreigner. The appearance of Chinese English means that the modern China that is integrating into the world has its own culture identity. Chinese English plays an inestimable role in the development process of the world and China. Especially in the foreign propaganda, Chinese English can help express the China exclusive thoughts and culture exactly and fluently and then promote the Chinese traditional thoughts and culture efficiently. At the same time, as the medium of communication and collision of Chinese and western culture, Chinese English brings Chinese and western thought even closer. As the time goes by, more and more Chinese English will enter English, foreigners have great passion to learn more about Chinese culture, especially after China entered WTO in 2001 and the 2008 Olympic Games, more and more foreigner come to do business in China and bring Chinese culture back to their own country. As a result, the proper Chinese English is the dispensable part in exporting culture.
  
  3.4The Dispensable Role in Chinese Culture Translation
  
  Why two different cultures should be exchanged the essence part with each other? That is because they have their own feature and characteristic. The differences not only lay in the content of original text, but also manifest in the form. If the target-text only pay attention to the content and ignore the real form, it can’t convey the original idea or concept to target-text readers, and of course is lack of dissemination of the Chinese unique culture at the same time. The main reason is that the translator has just completed half of his task in exporting the culture.
  
  If we turn over the dictionary in 1960s published by England and America, we can find a phrase “paper tiger” with a note “Chinese expression”。 It was produced by the request of Chairman Mao. In 1946 when Mao Zedong have a conversation with American reporter Anna?Lauis?Sterlong, he used the word “paper tiger” then the translator domesticated it as “scarecrow”, when Chairman Mao learned the real meaning, he asked the translator to change it into “paper tiger”。
  
  Yang Xianyi and his wife Gladys Yang worked for a long time to export culture through their translations, they advocate the rule to obey the original text, and hold the principle of faithfulness, that is they mention a faithful and elegant translation based on the Chinese culture and tradition. They believe that they have the responsibility to keep their translation texts consistent with Chinese culture heritage original and also show the true life of Chinese people, their joy and sorrow, love and hatred, fond and resentment, laugh and cry to the people all over the world.
  
  Though Gladys Yang is an English people, speaking of common sense, we can’t find any Chinese English in her translation, but as a mater of fact, in order to translate in ways that reflect the true circumstance of local region, she do use a large scale of Chinese English . The American contemporary translation theorist Eugene A?Nida put forward five culture factors in doing translation task, now let us analysis how Gladys Yang use Chinese English when doing the translation work.
  
  3.4.1 Religious Culture
  
  “老天爷!那是什么年月?如今又是什么年月?天红地红,全国上下搞文化大革命……“
  
  “Heavens above!Times have changed since then. This is the red-hot “culture revolution…”
  
  The Buddhism and Taoism are the major faiths to Chinese nation, if “老天爷” was translated as “God”, the reader may have concept that a large number of Chinese people are Christians.
  
  3.4.2 Language Culture
  
  “是亮妹?是亮妹!天啊,刘亮妹……老队长刘解解的大女娃……就像有一桶冰冷的水,从头到脚浇得田发青从痴迷中清醒过来,他立刻松开了自己的双手……”
  
  Was it Liangmei? Liu Liangmei…Heavens! The old team leader’s big daughter, Tian sobered up as if doused with coldwater…”
  
  There is difference between the salutation in Chinese and English culture. In English there is some words like: Doctor, President, Judge, they can followed by the family name, but usually to call people’s name directly. But in Chinese how to call a person have strictly obey the rule, the literal translation “大女娃” is easier for foreigner to learn the appellation in China more complicated than in English. In English people usually use “daughter” or “elder”, the saying of (eldest, younger, youngest) daughter belongs to Chinese English.
  
  3.4.3Material Culture
  
  (1)”赶上浮屠岭哪户人家办红白喜事,他把苞谷烧酒当酒喝……”
  
  When Pagoda Ridge had a wedding or funeral, he drank maize spirit like water…
  
  (2)”对联贴起来了,锣鼓敲起来了,鞭炮噼里啪啦想起来了,唢呐唔哩呱啦吹起来了”
  
  They pasted couplets, sounded gongs and drums, let off fire-crackers, blew suona.
  
  The “wine” in English is an “alcoholic drink made from grapes or other fruit, but in the countryside of China, the peasants use corn to make alcohol, so only this “maize spirit” can express the meaning accurately. “唢呐” is a kind of Chinese folk musical instrument , but can’t be found in English ,so relatively speaking, the Chinese English “suona” is the proper way of translation.
  
  3.4.4Social culture
  
  至于才子佳人等书……,更有一种风月笔墨……
  
  As for books of the beauty and talented type… Even worse are those writers of the breeze-and –moonlight school.
  
  “风月” in the source text portray the thoroughly delighted picture between man and woman, it usually appeared in the Chinese ancient poem. It is a symbol of Chinese social culture, so here literal translation is the relatively appropriate way to translate it.
  
  3.4.5 Ecological Culture
  
  水淀里没有一个人影,只有一团白绸子样的水鸟,也躲开鬼子往北飞去,落到大荷叶下面歇凉去了。
  
  No one else was in sight. Only a flock of silky white water-fowl flew off to the north away from the Japanese soldiers, alighting rest in the shade of big lotus leaves.
  
  “白绸子样的” refers to the white and soft bird feather in English, using “silky” make the target text more vivid.
  
  Translation task bears the major responsibility of exporting Chinese culture. Some people said:“亚洲四小龙” should be translated as ’four little tiger of Asia’, instead of “four little dragons of Asia.” They think “dragon” is a evil symbol in the western culture, but actually “dragon” is the symbol of auspicious and might in Chinese culture.
  
  To sum up, we can see, the proper use of Chinese English in translation can not only pass the certain culture feature to the foreign readers but also show the beautiful diction of the social style and identity at the same time, sometimes it is very necessary using the proper Chinese English in translation.
  
  4Proper Attitude Towards Chinese English
  
  In the days with the economic and information globalization, the contact and exchange is being continually enhanced between countries, In particular, the trend of multi-cultural integration and mutual penetration is more obvious. Under the recent trend, the emergency of “Chinese English” is inevitable, Chinese English is getting into English vocabulary world at a high speed. Yet as Chinese English refers to an irregular language form created by English learners in China due to the influence of mother tongue and culture, it is distinguished from standard English on the levels of pronunciation, grammar, and pragmatics. That is to say not all the Chinese English is acceptable and reasonable, sometimes the wrong-using of Chinese English may lead to misunderstanding, embarrassment, and the native-speakers can’t understand some inappropriate Chinese English expressions. Then how should we treat Chinese English properly? Next, the author will try to analysis the issue by the following two points.
  
  4.1Holding Suitable Attitude
  
  4.1.1Avoiding Anti-Chinese English Attitude
  
  As to Chinese English, people usually think that is one of the major problems which affect the quality of their Chinese-English translation, as well as their speaking, listening and writing. Some people have strong objections towards Chinese English. They pointed out that Chinese English is the misshapen language that violates against the rules of English language and culture.
  
  Before hosting the Olympic Games, the government requested rule out all the non-standard Chinese English, they stood firm, such as abolish the non-standard translation of menu, road sign. Facing public opinion against this initiative, the authority began to reflect on whether to abolish the Chinese English or not?
  
  In fact, the birth of Chinese English is not an accident in China´s economic development over the past years. These days, China´s status in the international community and its impact in international affairs have been greatly improved, and more and more people began to learn English, due to the different way of thinking, different culture background, it is impossible to get rid of all Chinese English theoretically. The president of Global Language Monitor Pall Payack said:” Though it is very hard to foresee the correct direction of Chinese English just like the English in other countries, the same as North India English, Spanish English, Jamaica English…Chinese English is a branch of English , it shares same word roots with English, like the Latin in Middle Century of Europe. If English is divided, it must enjoy the different phylums, but the most outstanding one is Chinese English, because there is the largest population learning English.” The appearance of Chinese English is reasonable, sometimes we find Chinese English is very useful in communication. Thus total negation of Chinese English is a kind of extreme and unreasonable attitude.
  
  4.1.2Accepting Appropriate Chinese English
  
  As we have discussed above, it is necessary to use appropriate Chinese English in certain circumstances. All in all Chinese English plays crucial role in culture exchanging with other countries. In recent years Chinese government has made a lot of efforts to popularize the Chinese culture. Confucious learning Center was established in some countries continuously, Of course, the strengthening of the Chinese language popularization drive will inevitably lead to the worldwide spread of Chinese culture. Meanwhile, Chinese English bear great influence towards the development of English, and it will infuse new vigor into English and make it more richful and representative so as to popularize the essence of Chinese culture.
  
  4.2Avoiding unsuitable Chinese English
  
  Why do some people stand firm against using Chinese English? That is because inappropriate Chinese English will definitely bring about misunderstanding and confusion. The failure of Cross-culture communication was doomed to appear.
  
  There are some awkward examples taken from a menu:
  
  “stuffed fatty meat pork(填充的肥猪肉)”, “slobbering chicken(流口水的鸡)”, “cheese melting in ham parcel(融化在火腿包里的干酪)”, “lion head(狮子头)”, “the fragrance explodes the cowboy bone(香味爆炸牛仔骨)” … Let us imagine the feeling of foreign friend when reading the menu.
  
  Next here are some inappropriate Chinese English on the road sign:
  
  “Deformed man toilet(畸形男厕所)=Public toilet for the disabled”, “Scattering(散播)=the exit for emergency”, “oil gate(油门口)=Filling Station”, “Beware, the slippery are very crafty(小心,滑梯是非常狡猾的)=Be careful, slippery slopes”
  
  All these Chinese English is the rendering of text from Chinese to English "word-for-word", without consideration to the practical value of these Chinese English. The foreigner can’t understand the true meaning that the speaker want to express. Though Chinese English plays an important role in communication activities, some unsuitable Chinese English should be banned .As English learners should:
  
  1) Know the culture and custom of western countries, for example,” Smith can do nothing in the company because he is just a small potato there?” “small potato ” means unimportant people, not the real potato in our daily life.
  
  2) Learn to use the suitable language in certain language circumstances. In western countries, people usually use” how do you feel ”you look pale” or “do you sleep well” when they come across, they don’t intend to ask the health condition, but is the way of greeting.
  
  3) Learn to judge what kind of way of saying is acceptable in communication. Pay more attention to the etiquette and customs of other countries.
  
  4) Gradually develop the English thinking mode. There are many differences between two languages, if we always speak in Chinese way of thinking, improper Chinese English will appear. For example, “carefully meet(literal meaning “小心翼翼的见面”)” in fact it means “watch your head”。 We can’t learn English well and suffered from culture shock until we obey these principles, and avoid cultural shock.
  
  So, proper Chinese English is very useful, but improper Chinese English is so useless that may bring about many embarrassments. Avoiding use such groundless Chinese English, let us promote Chinese Culture with the reasonable Chinese English, as well as promote the social harmonious development and promote our life.
  
  5Conclusion
  
  In the parts above, the author have analysis Chinese English in several aspects .Now the author will conclude her point of view:
  
  Chinese English is inevitable result under the certain stage of the development of English globaliaztion. at this stage, the economic globalization and information globalization have accelerated significantly in pace and intensity. The political aspects of dialogue among civilizations have already been touched upon in many aspects, so as global culture cannot and ought not to overlook characteristics and mutual understanding,and the movement of ideas and cultural interaction and interpenetration recur in human history as naturally and persistently.(这一部分是我给你加上的) Under such background, the English language is recognized as undoubtedly the dominant international language in communications, science, business and so on, so as that the population of English learner is outnumbered. In circumstance like this, the come –into-existence of Chinese English is inevitable. However, some people begin to worry about that Chinese English will influence the conventional English rules. Their anxiety is reasonable, but some of them are seemly at daggers drawn with Chinese English. They indulge in the standard of English language so deeply that they cannot accept the existence of Chinese English.
  
  In fact no matter what kind of English (American English, British English, Canada English), can not be used to express the Chinese ancient culture accurately, Chinese English as an important supplementary vocabulary can help express correctly and strengthen national culture consciousness. Chinese English can make up for cross culture communication deficiencies.
  
  In author’s viewpoint, Chinese English is a linguistic phenomenon that happens in the culture exchange between Chinese and English. Reasonable Chinese English is an integral part of international English. Chinese English, which itself represent a kind of local characteristics, is the contribution to the English language development. It adds more vocabulary to English, and enhances the expressive ability of English, so that expand the scope of application of English in the world. The emergency of Chinese English facilitates and supports the culture exchange between China and other countries in the world. On one hand, westerners has always shown a great interest in getting to know Chinese culture and traditions, so Chinese English plays an important role in the historical mission of “understanding China and integrating China into the World”。 On the other hand, we should treat Chinese English carefully, as complementary opposites, Chinese English is a kind of divergence of language from a set of linguistic norms, the breaking of rule-governed language to produce different language.
  
  To sum up, the Emergence of Chinese English is a reality, it is the inevitable path to increasing popularity of English language in China even worldwide. Chinese English should not be considered as pollution of English, on the contrary, it is a linguistic phenomenon based on the succession of the pith and marrow of traditional Chinese culture, and it plays an irreplaceable role in enhancing culture awareness and promoting culture exchange.
  
  At the end of the thesis the author would like to reaffirm his viewpoint that: appropriate Chinese English is an indispensable part in exporting Chinese culture.
  
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